Mild brain injury creates more headaches than Severe Brain Injury

More than of a million children are admitted at the hospital every year for brain injury. Since brain injury affects so many children, there have been many studies concerning the long term effects of brain injury on a person. A new study indicates that children who have a concussion or other traumatic brain injury are much more prone to developing headaches for a period of up to a year after the incident. This is different than children who have suffered from a bodily injury which indicates that they are much less likely to develop headaches. The results direct us to a difficult long term problem for children and their family because, according to researchers, there are no treatments to take care of the lingering headaches. Dr. Heidi Blume at the Childrens Research Institute in Seattle, Washington acknowledged that “Its an issue because they may have problems with sleep, and the headaches can make it harder to concentrate.”

Dr. Blume and her coworkers tracked more than 450 kids that were admitted into the emergency room due to brain injury accidents. Out of those over 450 children, 60 of those children had a moderate or severe injury whereas 402 had a mild injury. The children with brain injury cited many different causes including car accidents, falls, playing sports, and general rough play.

Dr. Blume and her colleagues compared all of the injury cases that they have seen and came up with some interesting data. Included in that data was a the information from diaries that Dr. Blume asked the children and their parents to keep which complied all of the headaches that they sustained over a period of a year. The data showed that after only three months, 43 out of every 100 kids who experienced some form of mild brain injury had headaches. Further, 37 out of 100 complained of headaches in the moderate or severe injury category.

The data is in direct conflict with what most doctors would foresee. More specifically, doctors are unsure how more headaches have been occurring in mild brain injury victims instead of severe brain injury victims. Karen Barlow of Alberta Childrens Hospital in Canada commented on this conundrum by stating that “That is a conundrum that we dont fully understand, but its been noted before” in research of adults. Barlow went on to explain that “There might be something about the moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries that interfere with the mechanisms of sensing pain, but we havent gotten to the bottom of that.” Thus, this data is still not known and researchers will continue to attempt to understand the full complexity of brain injuries.

If you or a loved one has suffered a serious injury or death of a loved one, the last thing you want to think about is saving money to pay for a California brain injury attorney. Accordingly, the Ginny Walia Law Offices handle cases on a contingency fee basis. This means that if you do not recover, then you will not be charged for any legal fees. Our fee structure is based on a percentage of the amount that we obtain for you. Further, we will work with you to settle your case.

Our personal injury attorneys will never settle your case without your authorization. California personal injury lawyers at Ginny Walia Law Offices will do everything possible to settle your brain injury accident case out of court without the delay of a full trial.

Speak to a California personal injury attorney now: If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury, we can help. Please call us now at 1 (510) 887-5910 for a free no obligation consultation.

Kratom Basics

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree native to the jungles of Southeast Asia. It has been used by people in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia for centuries mostly to increase endurance for manual labor. Unlike many herbal remedies, the active constituents of Kratom, mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine have been identified and characterized. Both compounds are chemically related to yohimbine, but bind to mu, delta and kappa opiate receptors in the body and brain (mu opiate receptors underlie the pleasant and addictive effects of opiates like morphine and heroin).

Previously unknown in the west, it is becoming increasingly popular due to the activities of internet retailers, many of whom advertise it as a “legal high”. While this is true, Kratom has many legitimate uses aside from intoxication and has enormous potential as an alternative medicine for treating some very difficult to manage conditions.

Effects: In low doses, Kratom appears to be stimulant-like, providing extra energy and endurance. It is in higher doses that Kratom’s opiate-like effects become clear and users experience sedation, nausea and euphoria. Due to binding affinities for opiate receptors throughout the body, including the brain, Kratom’s effects are similar to many opiate analgesics including codeine and morphine. It produces states of intoxication that are similar to Opium and can be habit forming, albeit in a less intense way. Side effects of opiates can also be also present including itchiness and constipation.

Doses: The strength of Kratom is highly variable depending on the strain, supplier and time of year. A low dose varies from 2-4 grams and a high dose ranges from 5-10 grams. Doses higher than 10 grams, especially of high grade Kratom invariably cause unpleasant side effects including nausea, vomiting and motor agitation. Overdose and death has not been recorded with Kratom alone though it was detected in the blood of at least at least one polydrug death in Asia involving a whole cocktail of more harmful substances.

Method of consumption: There are various methods of consuming or extracting Kratom which can be acquired in various forms including whole leaf, crushed leaf and as a powder. The powdered form is easiest to deal with and will produce the greatest effect for the least amount of effort.

The simplest method of consuming kratom is to simply swallow the dry powder. This can be done relatively painlessly by pouring a little bit of water in the mouth, tilting one’s head back so that the water covers the throat, dumping in a pre-measured amount of Kratom from a piece of paper folded in half and swallowing. If done right the Kratom eater may not even taste the Kratom.
Eating Kratom dry delays the onset of effects and prolongs their duration. For a more rapid onset, Kratom can be simmered briefly in boiling water and then consumed as a tea. Due to the low solubility of active alkaloids in water, it is recommended that the plant material be consumed with the tea rather than filtered out.

Extracts: Alkaloids in Kratom, including mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine cannot readily be dissolved in water but can be extracted with other solvents. However, the effects of Kratom appear to be mediated by a wide range of different alkaloids and it is for this reason that extracts, sometimes labelled 10x, 30X or even 100X are often less potent than unaltered 1X plain leaf although one reported case of a a deadly overdose in Thailand involved Kratom extract in combination with other very strong drugs.
Medicinal Benefits and Heath Effects: Kratom has been used in Thailand traditionally to treat diarrhea and studies in rats have shown it to be as effective as Loperimide (Immodium AD) especially for the treatment of severe diarrhea (Chittrakarn, 2007).

Recently, chronic opiate users have begun to use Kratom for the treatment of opiate withdrawal (Vicknasingam, 2010). In most cases, Kratom can completely replace the opiate of abuse and relieves withdrawal symptoms even in very severe opiate users such as IV heroin addicts. Kratom itself can cause a physical dependance but its withdrawal symptoms are no where near as severe as that of illegal or prescription opiates and many addicts have found it useful to convert their addiction to Kratom first before quitting completely.

Because of its biological similarity to opiate analgesics, Kratom can successfully be used as an alternative for moderate to severe pain. It is less habit-forming than drugs such as oxycodone, morphine or hydrocodone that are traditionally used to treat conditions such as chronic back pain and may be just as effective.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that Kratom may be useful in alleviating symptoms of restles leg syndrome (RLS) although once habituated, withdrawal symptoms may make the condition temporarily worse.
Some of the compounds found in Kratom have been shown to have antioxidant properties and therefore are considered to be of significant health benefit. Additionally, consumption of Kratom can help add fiber to the digestive tract.

Legality: Kratom is completely legal in much of the west, including the United States and Canada. It is illegal to possess or sell in Thailand, Malaysia or Australia but is legal in Indonesia where much of the Kratom in western markets originate. It is not approved for human consumption by the FDA in the U.S. or relevant agencies in Canada and for this reason is not widely marketed at a large scale.

Sources: Kratom can be purchased in large quantities directly from growers but most customers in the United States and Canada prefer to order personal use quantities from reputable Kratom vendors in their own countries. Discretion is advisable when purchasing Kratom due to the large number of unscrupulous online retailers selling sub-par or even fake Kratom that is dangerous to consume.

Most Canadian customers buy from American sites but more Kratom stores from Canada, such as madamkratom.ca, have been appearing and offer lower shipping costs, faster delivery, and competitive prices. Nonetheless, many customers continue to order from American sources due to a lack of information or a perceived better value from U.S. sites.

Conclusion: Far from being just a “legal high” like Salvia, Kratom offers many health benefits for those interested in alternative medicines and may be a major godsend for those battling opiate addiction. While it is still largely unknown in the west, it is slowly becoming more popular and is readily acquired online.

References: Chittrakarn S, Sawangjaroen K, Prasettho S, Janchawee B, Keawpradub N. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 28;116(1):173-8. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Balasingam Vicknasingama,, Suresh Narayananb, Goh Teik Benga, Sharif Mahsufi Mansora The informal use of ketum (Mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. International Journal of Drug Policy 21 (2010) 283288

Wichian Tungtananuwat and Somsong Lawanprasert. Fatal 4×100; Home-made Kratom Juice Cocktail. J Health Res 2010, 24(1): 43-47

Are Royal Assent, Pardons And Prorogation Fact Or Legal Fiction

Elizabeth II is the Head of State of the United Kingdom and fifteen other member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. These countries are constitutional monarchies, meaning that they operate under an essentially democratic constitution, the Queens principal role being to represent the state. Very often, she is viewed as a symbolic and apolitical personage with no real power. But is this entirely true? Does the Queen really possess purely nominal authority, or can she in fact exercise her will in any public action? This is not an easy question to answer. I will attempt to do so by focusing mainly on one of her most important theoretical prerogatives: the right to grant or deny royal assent to laws passed by Parliament.

A difficulty in judging the extent of the authority presently held by the monarchy lies in the fact that the British constitution has not been codified into one single document and much of it remains unwritten. The extensive power that the monarch once indisputably possessed, including the right to administer justice, dissolve Parliament or pardon crimes, was largely a matter of common law and not statute. What laws were codified (the Bill of Rights of 1689 and the Act of Settlement of 1701 standing among the most important) served more to restrict the Monarchs power than to entrench it. Thus, the residual powers still reserved to the Queen continue to be more a matter of constitutional convention than of written rules. Formally, no Act of the British Parliament becomes a proper law until it is given assent by the Queen. Yet in practice, Elizabeth II assents to all bills, irrespective of her opinion on them. The last time a British monarch rejected a law was in 1708, when Queen Anne vetoed the Scottish Militia Bill, and even then, she did so at the request of her ministers. Since then, the right of royal assent has fallen into disuse, leading some constitutional theorists to claim that a new convention obligating the monarch to assent to all bills has arisen. This view was famously stressed by Walter Bagehot in his 1867 volume The English Constitution:

…the Queen has no such veto. She must sign her own death-warrant if the two Houses unanimously send it up to her. It is a fiction of the past to ascribe to her legislative power. She has long ceased to have any.

In earlier generations, such a bold assertion of the monarchs supposed lack of power would have been unpardonable. Even I see some flaws in this theory. For one thing, the only evidence on which it stands (besides Bagehots claim) is custom. Even if all the monarchs since Queen Anne have assented to all bills presented to them, there is no formal change in any official policy that would indicate that the practice will be followed for the next bill. Additionally, if the Queen decided to withhold assent to a bill, what legal mechanism could force her to do otherwise? It would seem to me that in such an event, the veto could only be effectively circumvented by some kind of revolutionary act – as a minimum, by the Government refusing to respect the veto, which would undoubtedly lead to a constitutional crisis.

The situation is more clear-cut in Canada, which, unlike the United Kingdom, has a constitution that is largely written. The Constitution Act, 1867 clearly delineates the powers of the Crown. According to Section 55 of the Act, when the Governor General (the Queens representative in Canada) is presented with a bill that has been passed by Parliament, he may declare that he assents to it in the Queens name, that he withholds his assent, or that he reserves the bill for the signification of the Queens pleasure (letting the Queen decide the matter; according to Section 57, she may do so within two years after the Governor General receives the bill). Furthermore, as per Section 56, the Queen in Council (the Queen acting on the advice of her Privy Council) may disallow a law assented to by the Governor General within two years after receiving a copy of the law. Therefore, the Queen, together with the Governor General, does have the formal authority to veto a law passed by the Canadian Parliament. Nevertheless, no Governor General has done this since Confederation in 1867, although some provincial Lieutenant Governors have vetoed provincial laws or reserved them to the pleasure of the Governor General (under the authority of Section 90 of the Constitution Act, 1867). This happened most recently in 1963 when Saskatchewans Lieutenant Governor Frank Bastedo reserved a bill.

On top of that, there are instances in recent Commonwealth history of other royal prerogatives being directly exercised by the Crown against a governments wishes. Depending on the country, the crown may have extensive official powers, including the appointment of ministers, granting of pardons for eliminating criminal records, or calling an early election, and some of these have been exercised in person, especially during unclear political situations. A classic example is Governor General Byngs 1926 refusal to call a very early election at the request of Canadian Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, who wished to remain in power despite the stronger footing of the Conservative party in Parliament. Byng refused to do so; King was incensed by this supposed infringement on democracy, but Byng stood his ground. Another famous example was the dismissal of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam by Australian Governor General John Kerr during the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Whitlams controversial government did not have control of both houses of Parliament and he petitioned Kerr to call a half-senate election. Instead, Kerr dismissed him and appointed Malcolm Fraser, the leader of the Opposition, in his place.

The fact that the royal prerogative is rarely exercised, if at all, by the Queen and her representatives, appears to be more the product of a conventional good will on their part than an actual legal requirement. I hope Bagehot would pardon me if I surmised that he overdid it when he claimed that the Queen must sign her own death-warrant; what he was speaking about was more a matter of everyday practice as he saw it than a real summary of the standing law. After all, the monarchy seeks to stay popular and in todays age of democracy, its very existence depends on public approval.

Migration For Canada By Immigration Overseas Experts

If you are a migrant and have done a bit of research by now, then you would be aware of the fact that migration is tangled process which involves myriad formalities that are to be followed for a proper migration. Also the whole process takes a very long duration to be completed. It can even take years for the authorities to properly process your application. Migration for Canada is also a very lengthy process and it also involves such complications. However these complications can be simplified if you are under the guidance of immigration consultants. Immigration consultant expertise in the department of handling complex migration laws with ease. They provide guidance to their customers for a hassle free migration. Apart from handling the immigration laws, they provide effectual services to their clients like medical insurance, pre-arranged accommodation and such others. These services facilitate the whole process of immigration.
Immigration consultants can really make a big difference in the way of your migration by saving your time and money. Still there is a thing you need to take caution of before taking assistance from this migration for Canada firms. There are many firms who will try to steal of your money without giving you proper services and by not carrying out your process even after charging you for those services. First they exorbitantly charge you then not provide you with satisfying results. For not to become a victim of such firms what you can do is check for the accreditation that the particular firm has received. Accreditations are a very important factor in deciding the reputation of any firm as they testify that the firm is a legally accepted enterprise. Then you can see for the experience they have in the migration domain. Experience means that they have handled many cases in that department and have the relevant expertise in tackling any complex situation which might arise.
Immigration Overseas is the firm which can be the end to your migration for Canada search. Here you will find some of the best and exclusive services that will make your migration experience memorable. This firm is affiliated from several government agencies like Migrants Agents Registration Authority (MARA), Migration Institute of Australia (MIA) & ICCRC. They have the experience of more than a decade, in which Immigration Overseas have handled complex migration cases.

Visa Application Service Advantages

Visa application has been a constant problem for people who love to visit other countries. One has to pass through a long process with proper legal documents and passports to apply for visas. Also the filling process at the immigration offices is not very easy because it takes days and days to get the approval for your visa application. So it`s up to you if you think that you are able to fill in your visa application on your own than you might have a lot of patience, but if you feel like it`s not your job and you need someone to do that for you than you should go for some specialists that can really help you, offering you a smaller possibility of failure or mistake.

Here is the solution to your problems; there are many places which are opened to provide such facilities to customers not only for Russian visas, but also for some other visas like French visa, Angola visa, Lebanon visa, Brazil Visa, Canada visa and many others. So what you have to do is simply connect to these sites and choose the location and type of visa you want for your trip, and they`ll ask you to fill in some details because they need to submit certain legal documents.

Now, your work will be done by professionals who can guarantee you quality. You`ll get the visa in the promised time, without going from one embassy to another, without waiting in long queues, without wasting your free time. Of course you have to pay a certain fee which can vary from one website to another, but you`ll see that you`ll be happy to pay this amount to keep your calm. If you have experienced this kind of experience you would understand that it is a small fee for your patience.

These sites offer comfort to their customers and provide them all kind of services related to visa. You`ll see that calling on these sites will be the best decision you have take. Moreover these websites will be available to you every day, 24 hours, so you can fill in the application form whenever you want from any part of the world, because all they created all the necessary conditions.

In conclusion, it`s better for you to take into account new options because in this way you`ll fasten the application process and you`ll get your visa on time, without losing your precious time, just sitting in front of your computer and deciding what is the best for you.

Find Competitiveness of Criminal Law Vancouver

Vancouver criminal law is known to deal with criminal lawyers or attorneys who match the enterprise needs of their clients with having skills and information to function across the nation competitively.

Globalization has been changing the way of working in different fields and so one is wrong if believes that criminal law Vancouver is confined to work in the nation only. The fact is that criminal attorneys are anticipated to have skills to perform competitively across national borders also.

This article will help you to know how criminal defense attorneys have been becoming more competitive in their domain in Vancouver. Following are the points which will help you to understand this fact in detail.

Degree of knowledge

Lawyers have widened their knowledge in terms of law and jurisdictions and thus have started having the degree of knowledge that concerns or deals global legal system. For this, they started working in partnerships with attorneys or lawyers belonging to other jurisdictions. Knowledge is comprised to have adequate and fair information on the aspects like prosecution, arrest, or defense of a suspect.

Multi-jurisdictional legal systems

Practicing internationally helps the lawyers to remain aware of multi-jurisdictional legal systems and to gain extensive experience in legal systems. Appropriate knowledge helps such attorneys to practice competitively and get experience in dealing different legal matters like corporate fraud, criminal obstruction, bankruptcy and much more.

International abilities

Well, international abilities of lawyers make them to get fame in and outside the boundary. The past fifteen years have marked several amendments and advancements in the international criminal law and so the lawyers work and practice in the way to remain informed of all such changes so as to legally represent the clients properly. And to get rapid development in practice, lawyers work on empirical, exploration and theoretical which are the three goals of international criminal law.

International academic standards

Law colleges in Canada are aware that skills and knowledge are required to let one gain international criminal law abilities and thus they have started imparting education in the same direction. Latest education patterns have now started dealing all necessary academic set of subjects that can fit the requirement of international standards.

Best job opportunities

The law professions are counted among the hardest occupations existing these days. Moreover, it has been also observed that criminal lawyers having international law skills and knowledge have been getting best job opportunities these days. This is the reason why it has been getting common to see professional criminal lawyers in Vancouver receiving training for multi-jurisdictional legal systems.

Hence, these features are enough to illustrate the capabilities of criminal attorneys in Vancouver.

John Buchanan is a professional criminal defense attorney who is known for his 25 years of experience in serving clients who need legal representations for charges like domestic assault, drug charges and different shoplifting charges in Vancouver, BC.

Why A Legal Plan Is A Good Idea For Families With Teenage Drivers

Teenage drivers pose one of the greatest risks for automobile accidents. It is the main reason why including them on one’s auto insurance is so high. When its time to add your new driver to your car insurance policy, you may want to consider a legal plan as well. Based on how the averages stack up against your teenager, it could end up saving you several hundreds to thousands of dollars when its time to renew your insurance.

Remember that day when you passed your road test and was issued your first driver’s license? You probably had a smile that stretched from ear to ear and thought to yourself, -Oh, that special feeling of independence!- On the other hand, when your parents went to add you to their insurance policy, they discovered that they might have to finance that extra cost, because it was astronomical. Fast forward to today, and now your teenager is making that leap of independence, and you now know how your parents felt.

In fact, studies show that average cost of insurance for teenage drivers nearly doubles a family’s insurance premiums. Why? Because the risks are much higher when a teenage is behind the wheel. One of the most interesting facts about teenage drivers is that they are 3 times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash . Couple that with the law enforcement campaigns that seem to always net a higher percentage of speeding teenage drivers, and you begin to understand why the insurance companies charge such high premiums. Lets face it, the maturity of teenage drivers, on average, is lacking that of an experienced driver, which usually only comes with some years behind the wheel.

Don’t totally fret, because there are some insurance discounts for teen drivers. And even though they don’t make up for the sharp jump in insurance premiums, every little bit helps. For instance, if your teen gets good grades, that’s a plus. And just about all of the major auto insurance companies provide discounts when teens take a defensive driving course. Of course, make sure to inquire with your auto insurance for any discounts you might be entitled to.

And once you have added your teenage to the policy, its time to consider a family legal plan – one that offers legal representation in traffic court for moving violations – you know – tickets. As was mentioned earlier in this article, teenagers get traffic tickets at a much higher rate average. And as you know, when points come with that ticket, so does the promise of higher insurance premiums. This is where having an attorney represent your teenager, or even you for that matter, can make a big difference in the outcome of your court case. And when you consider that just 1 or 2 points on a teen’s driver record has the potential to raise a policy by several hundreds to several thousands of dollars, is there any wonder why participation in legal plans is starting to happen in huge numbers?

There are many types of legal plans in the market, so you will have to do a little research to find a company that has a plan to fit your families’ needs. Most basic plans cost less that $20 monthly. And they usually offer more than just motor vehicle moving violation coverage – with coverages like basic consultation, letter writing, contract review, wills, IRS Audit representation, law suits representation, and the likes. With all of these added benefits and potential savings, and a daily cost of less than a cup of coffee, a legal plan begins to make a lot of sense compared to the high cost of auto insurance.

In any case, now that you have a new driver in the family, adding legal protection is generally a good decision.

Gerard Cassagnol is a professional marketer of legal plans and identity theft plans for individuals, families, and small businesses. He has subscribed to a legal plan for more than 15 years and has been an advocate of affordable legal protection in the USA and Canada. For more information about Small Business Legal Protection, please got to FREE Insider Legal Protection Report . For more information about Identity Theft, including good tips to help protect you and your family, go to ID THEFT PROTECTION

Defining The Parameters Of Limitation Periods In Personal Injury Actions

A limitation period is a stated period of time, the expiry of which extinguishes a party’s legal remedy and forbids the commencement of a legal action. Each province in Canada has general statutes of limitations and many provincial and federal statutes contain limitation periods applicable to a variety of causes of actions. Traditionally, limitation periods have been strictly enforced. More recently, the subject of when time begins to run has received greater attention from our courts.

The discoverability rule has evolved fairly recently in our civil jurisprudence.1 It gives relief in certain factual situations by extending a limitation period. According to the discoverability rule, a limitation period begins to run when the material facts upon which an action is based have been discovered, or ought to have been discovered by the plaintiff through the exercise of due diligence. The effect of the rule is to postpone the running of time until a reasonable person, in the exercise of reasonable diligence, would discover the facts necessary to maintain the action.2 It is a general rule applied to avoid injustice.

It is now over two years since the Supreme Court of Canada upheld the Ontario Court of Appeal’s decision in Peixeiro v. Haberman. Justice Major in Peixeiro adopted Taddle’s J. A.’s statement in Fehr v. Jacob (1993), 14 C.C.L.T. (2d) 200 (Man. C.A.) at 206, which is as follows:

In my opinion, the judge-made discoverability rule is nothing more than a rule of construction. Whenever a statute requires an action to be commenced within a specified time from the happening of a specific event, the statutory language must be construed. When time runs from “the accrual of the cause of action” or from some other event which can be construed as occurring only when the injured party has knowledge of the injury sustained, the judge-made discoverability rule applies. But, when time runs from an event which clearly occurs without regard to the injured party’s knowledge, the judge-made discoverability rule may not extend the period the legislature has prescribed.

In Peixeiro the court concluded that the limitation period under the Ontario Highway Traffic Act did not start to run in a personal injury action arising out of an automobile accident until the plaintiff discovered facts that could sustain a claim that his or her injuries met the threshold under the Insurance Act.

Since Peixeiro, the discoverability rule has enjoyed broad application in Ontario in motor vehicle actions and actions against municipalities and the provincial crown. As such there is now a body of jurisprudence on the scope and application of Peixeiro. The purpose of this paper is to review the way Ontario courts have applied Peixeiro in the context of personal injury litigation so that the parameters of the present authorities in the area of motor vehicle actions and actions against municipalities and the provincial crown can be better understood and defined