Harry J. Anslinger and the Campaign against Marijuana

Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world. Despite its current legal status it only became criminalised within the last century, before which it was both a regularly used recreational drug as well as a medically prescribed drug for dealing with a wide range of ailments from glaucoma to cancer and multiple sclerosis. So if merely a century ago Marijuana was a widely used and medically acknowledged drug how did it manage to reach the criminalised status that it now holds?

In America the criminalisation of cannabis began as a relatively slow and understated process with certain states outlawing its use starting in the District of Columbia in 1906. A couple of states followed this example and outlawed the use of cannabis throughout the 1910s and 20s but it wasn’t until the 1930’s that the criminalization of cannabis became a major issue.

The reason that cannabis became such a huge issue was the launch of a massive smear campaign against marijuana lead by Harry J Anslinger from 1930 to 1937. Harry J Anslinger started his career as the Assistant Prohibition Commissioner in the Bureau of Prohibition before he was promoted to the position of Commissioner in the newly created Federal Bureau of Narcotics in 1930. Anslinger held this position for 32 years, but it is his campaign against marijuana, which dominated the first 7 years of his tenure, that he is most widely remembered for.

Anslinger made heavy use of the mass media in order to spread his anti-cannabis message. Anslinger notoriously fabricated a number of stories tenuously linked to police reports that he published in his “Gore File” and used to turn the public against the drug and gain backing for its criminalisation. Among the accusations he levied were “There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz and swing, result from marijuana usage. This marijuana causes white women to seek sexual relations with Negroes, entertainers and any others.”; “Reefer makes darkies think they’re as good as white men.”; “You smoke a joint and you’re likely to kill your brother.” These accusations were designed to pray on the worries that many American’s had about the number of immigrants entering the country.

A more interesting point relating to this is that Anslinger wanted the growth of all marijuana plants outlawed; including those that yield no intoxicating chemicals and can only be used to produce the extremely versatile textile hemp and cannabis oil which can form a cheap and effective base for fuels, paints and plastics. Anslinger and his primary supporter, William Randolph Hearst, both had considerable interest in the petrochemical industry and it has been suggested that the anti-cannabis campaign was primarily designed to eliminate hemp as a competitor.

No matter the reasons it is clear that Harry J Anslinger and his anti-cannabis activism played an enormous role in the national criminalisation of the drug, something which is still strongly debated to this day.

Arguable Legal Points in a Motorcycle Accident

Many people associate Oakland with some of the most storied ball clubs in the US. The Oakland Raiders in football and the Golden State Warriors in basketball are just two of the most popular franchises that the city has to offer. While sports are a major crowd draw in Oakland, there are also other notable features in the city.

As Oakland’s economy is partly dependent on the marine cargo sector, traffic to the bay area always remains heavy. Major roads can sometimes go get gridlocked during rush hours and the holiday season. Motorcycle riders are especially vulnerable because accidental collisions have a greater chance of seriously injuring them.

If you’re a motorcycle driver who’s recently gotten into an accident, it’s time to consider hiring a lawyer. If you are being falsely accused of causing the incident, a good attorney can help prove your innocence. An Oakland lawyer use the following arguments to help your position.

Right of way

This is a common issue for most motorcycle accidents in the US as other motorists fail to recognize the right of the passing motorcycle. An Oakland motorcycle accident attorney can argue that it was the other driver that was on the wrong side of the road. Arguing right of way is fairly easy especially if witnesses can also corroborate the police report.

Negligence

Sometimes the other driver failed to see you while they’re driving because they were probably distracted with something else. This is another possible argument an Oakland motorcycle accident lawyer can use. If your legal counsel can prove that the other party was using his or her mobile phone while driving, you’ve practically won the case. Driver negligence is one of the major causes of motor vehicle accidents in the US. Texting, eating or talking on the phone are the common culprits.

DUI

An Oakland motorcycle accident attorney can also argue that the other party was driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Breathalyzer test results from the local traffic enforcers who handled the incident are crucial pieces of evidence. Finding empty beer cans or liquor bottles in the other driver’s vehicle are also key item that can prove your innocence.

Obtaining Employment Immigration Visas To Work In The United States

If you are moving to America from a different country, you will need an employment immigration visa in order to work legally in the country. People who are not American citizens or legally permanent residents must obtain these visas, to work here. The process can be quite complicated if you are not already familiar with it. Hiring an employment immigration attorney can help greatly throughout this process if you want to work in the US on a temporary basis.

If you want to work temporarily in America, you will need a visa that is specific to your line or work and the purpose for your travel to the United States. To obtain this necessary document, you must meet a number of requirements within employment immigration law in the United States. Your employer is also required to file a petition to the U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services on your behalf. If you are seeking permanent residency in the U.S., you will need to obtain a green card. This document will authorize you to work and live permanently in the country.

Obtaining an Employment Authorization Document (EAD) is necessary to prove that you are eligible to work in America. This card is valuable for one year, and it can be renewable. Students and exchange visitors may also be allowed to work in the United States under certain circumstances. These people must obtain permission from a person who is authorized to do so, typically a Designated School Official. Employers are obligated to verify that any individual they hire is authorized to be employed in the United States.

There are a variety of work visas. Exchange visitor visas are available to individuals who are approved to participate in study or work based exchange programs. Temporary work visas are available for foreign workers who are working in specific fields in the U.S. There are also temporary documents for skilled, educated individuals in specialized fields. Green cards are available for foreign individuals who wish to become permanent residents of the United States.

Because this process can be quite convoluted to go through on your own, you may want to consider hiring an attorney who specializes in this field of the law. A legal professional can help you to get through the process easily. Whether you are interested in a permanent or temporary stay in the U.S., it is essential that you get the documents necessary to work legally.

Looking for more information regarding employment immigration? You should visit: .

Increased Regulatory Scrutiny Contributes To Legal Outsourcing Boom

Following the global financial crisis, businesses are facing increased regulatory compliance pressures. To tighten regulatory oversight in the UK, the UK government restructured financial regulation and divided the Financial Services Authority (FSA) into two regulatory bodies — the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulatory Authority. Across the pond, the US enacted the DoddFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which changed the American financial regulatory environment and almost every part of the nation’s financial services industry. In the wake of these sweeping regulatory reforms, companies in regulated industries, such as finance and healthcare, must be hyper-diligent with their compliance programs.

Today, industry regulators in the UK and US are aggressively investigating any allegations of corruption and bribery, particularly related to foreign jurisdictions. Subsequently, the number of investigations and litigations has increased significantly, and companies face heavy fines for noncompliance and even risk criminal prosecution.

When an investigation occurs, corporate legal departments often need to provide huge amounts of information to satisfy regulator requests. The traditional ways of gathering and collating this information and reviewing it for relevance are no longer feasible. Legal departments need to have the ability to review information quickly and cost effectively, so they can respond efficiently to regulatory notices.

Law firms may not be the ideal choice to manage large volumes of information and data in a timely and cost-effective manner. Collecting and ESI processing, forensic analysis, storage, database management, hosting, and software configuration and maintenance are non-legal services that can be provided by non-legal specialists. Legal outsourcing providers (Legal Process Outsourcing) are better positioned to handle these tasks because they typically offer advanced technology and more focus on these skill sets, which are now essential for both litigation and regulatory investigations. Seasoned LPOs are geared up to provide exactly this type of predictability of costs and time lines for disclosure and can work to a fixed budget. This provides more certainty and allows clients to control costs particularly in complex investigations or litigation cases.

At the same time, the courts are mandating a wider and deeper review of electronic documents in legal proceedings as well as an explanation of what steps parties have taken to recover potentially relevant e-documents. Again, LPOs are well-equipped to provide end-to-end data management, allowing clients to confidently outsource document management and review work in regulatory matters. Some clients are even setting up panels of LPOs and requiring their external law firms to work collaboratively with these LPOs to ensure that the potential cost savings are properly and appropriately realized.

The global financial crisis has forced corporations to develop new strategies to cost-effectively and efficiently handle investigations and litigation. As more companies look to manage the associated costs and risks resulting from regulatory scrutiny, document review and e-discovery are likely to be growth areas for LPOs.

Check more info about : San Francisco lawyers association and Intellectual Property Conference USA

Amway Legal Battles

Amway has been in business for over 50 years. And just like many other companies that have been around for that long, they have had their fair share of legal issues. Of those legal battles they have had, most of them are about product liability or distributor disputes. However, not one of those legal battles has affected the tremendous growth that has occurred within Amway.

As an example, in 1997, Amway sued a polish film maker for libel. The film, Welcome to Life, purportedly defamed Amway, showing a misleading and libelous version of what muli-level marketing was all about. Amway Poland was able to obtain an injunction, preventing the film’s release, and subsequently Amway won the lawsuit.

Other relatively minor legal battles have involved some Amway distributors using copyrighted music on promotional tapes – these usually do not affect the company as a whole and most have been settled out of court. But another type of legal battle gets at the heart of what MLM is…

**Landmark decisions**

Is MLM, and Amway specifically, a pyramid scheme? In other words, is the business model illegal from the start? This is when the big time legal battles started. Losing a challenge on this subject would mean, not just fines, but a complete shutdown of operations – maybe even jail time.

Well, in 1977, Amway was subjected to just such a challenge. The US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) started investigating Amway for deceptive business practices and the charge was essentially one of operating a pyramid, or Ponzi, scheme.

The crux of the issue was this, was Amway trying to make money just from recruiting distributors or was the main business model to sell products. This is a serious charge in a serious venue – the FTC had the power to completely shut Amway down.

After over two years of investigating, the FTC ruled that the Amway business model was legit. They did criticize some of the business practices, and Amway changed some of its sales materials as a result. But the ruling was clear – there was nothing illegal about MLM and network marketing.

This one single decision by the FTC save the network marketing industry as a whole. With the validation of the FTC, network marketers could finally claim what they had always known – MLM isn’t a scam, or a deceptive business practice. Instead, it is a legitimate way to sell products and grow individual businesses.

Another win

Proctor and Gamble, Amway’s main competitor, brought suit in 1995, claiming that Amway had allowed its telephone messaging service (AmVox) to be knowingly used to harm P&G. The claim was that rumors that P&G was a Satanist organization had been spread over this service and that the company’s reputation had suffered damage because of this.

After almost a decade in the courts, and lawsuits in multiple States, the case was dismissed in 2003. P&G did win money against four individual Amway distributors in Utah in 2005, but the Amway Corporation remained untouched by the slander.

**Foreign legal battles**

While the legitimacy of the MLM model was proven in the US, occasionally, the same issue has been raised in other countries. Because Amway Global is actually global in scope, these are of interest.

2006 – India started action against Amway under their version of Ponzi scheme laws. While the case isn’t entirely settled, Amway still does business in India and has won against some of the injunctions placed upon it. The original case is still pending, but in the past four years, no grounds have been found to move forward.

2007 – British authorities brought an action against Amway for what were called, “objectionable practices.” The Department of Trade and Industry (the UK version of the FTC) has the power to shut down operations and this was a serious matter. In 2008, the investigation was complete and Amway was found to have violated no laws in Britain.

**A settled issue**

With the results in, the question of whether Amway is a pyramid scheme or not is settled. Challenges to the MLM business model have been mounted, not only in the US, but several other countries. In every major legal battle, Amway had won.

Network marketing remains a viable and completely legal way to do business. In the new millennium, with the rise of the Internet, it may in fact be one of the best ways to do business. Amway has proven their model over and over again – both in the courts and on the ground. If you wish to partner with Amway, rest assured there is no pyramid scheme, no Ponzi operation – just an exciting opportunity.

Legal Immigration Difficulties

I decided to begin a conversation using the issues of legal immigration, due to the fact they are the most severe and most tough problems of immigrants. The first guidance could be to seek out immigration lawyer will assist you to to legal problems might be. Locate immigration lawyer could be challenging and pricey, so I gave some recommendations on legal immigration. Common difficulties of legal immigration before immigrants from about the planet:

* To obtain permission to remain residence over initially believed when I wrote a temporary visa which permits only stay for 3 months and now you would like to remain longer or permanently.
* To obtain permission to perform pursuits that you are not currently approved to accomplish these kinds of work. This can be just about the most typical difficulties along with your immigration status is defined by your visa (entry paperwork), only to justify selected actions.
* Give mother and father within the region, by way of example, husband or wife, young children, parents or fiance (e) to join you within the new region of residence.
* On the danger of leaving the new host region.
* Because the custody of immigration authorities within a detention center or the airport. What occurred to my mothers and fathers who had legal immigration documents and was arrested in the airport for greater than two hrs, just due to the fact the immigration authorities on the airport could not understand how African college students had the money to fly into and from the U.S., so he determined that he’s involved in suspicious exercise. We needed to get immigration legal professional to assist us. It has also been not too long ago renowned Indian Bollywood star Shah Rukh Khan was detained within the U.S. in the airport. So even folks legal immigration paperwork, US immigration issue, some just depending on discrimination, racial or otherwise.
* Do you have a passport and didn’t know regardless of whether you might be eligible for US passport from home.
* Need to grow to be a citizen, and you also change your immigration status.
* Keen to travel (eg, emergency or family members leave), but were afraid to travel because you usually do not know no matter whether you would return in the new nation of residence.
* Do you’ve got the best to make use of state services or declare benefits, these as schooling, well being, housing, social services, housing benefits, Council tax benefit. Be aware: This also applies to legal immigrants who pay taxes, though they at times usually do not qualify for social benefits.
* Do you might have the best to vote.
* A relative or pal has to be returned towards the airport or harbor once they arrive for you.ou.

In the agencies of New Jersey Immigration Attorney every consumer is treated having a excellent deal of value and we make certain that all your needs is going to be met with as significantly pace as accuracy that your situation demands.

Fresno Bankruptcy Attorney A Friend In Need

Business may not be kicking around as it should. Things seldom happen as they should. Things might have reached the worst point they ever could, and you might be even declared a bankrupt. If you find your business in Fresno, California, and you find yourself bankrupt, you would need a Fresno bankruptcy attorney to help you out of several tough situations. In the worst situation, you might have to liquidate all your assets to fill up all your liabilities. This might mean giving salary to your staff or even repaying debt. If you are unable to do so, you would require the services of a well qualified attorney.

When You Are Bankrupt, You Do This
If you don’t do anything about your bankruptcy quickly, it would affect your credit score in a negative manner, and your reputation as a good company would go down the gutter. The stain is going to remain as it is for several years. No one would bother about giving you credit, and your business set-up could be at a loss. Some amount of credit-assistance would certainly help, as would a bit of counseling. But a lawyer could solve almost all your problems. So, it is very important to get hold of a good lawyer well-versed in everything concerning bankruptcy, and you would never find anyone better than a Fresno bankruptcy attorney for this.

Different Types of Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy is dealt in three manners in the US. A qualified professional Fresno bankruptcy attorney is the best person to tell you all about this, but the given information should give you a brief idea.
The most common sort of bankruptcy is Chapter 13. A comprehensive plan for repayment of your debt is formed by your legal counsel. The process could involve extending the time given for the repayment, and even lowering the amount of money to be repaid. All of this is done with the agreement of the creditors.

The kind of bankruptcy where you have to liquidate some of your assets, with the exception of your personal belongings and other items of daily need is dealt with under the chapter 7 bankruptcy. At the end of the day, the credit report gets a black mark, and most of your assets are sold off to satisfy your creditors.
Chapter 11 bankruptcy works well for those who personally own the business. It lets the owner retain command of the business while the legal proceedings continue. A chapter 11 bankruptcy is the solution if the business isn’t able to pay its bills.

Does Bankruptcy Mean The End Of The World?
For the more adventurous, there are other options of dealing with bankruptcy like debt consolidation, debt settlement, credit counseling and debt management. Interest rates could be brought down with debt relief and penalties could as well be waived. At the end of the day, you don’t owe that much of money, and it is certainly not the end of the world if you find yourself bankrupt one day.

Get An Idea Of The Different Qualities Of A Good Personal Injury Attorney

Personal injuries may happen anytime and anyplace. However, it is seen, in many cases that people tend to overlook the importance of hiring a personal injury attorney to deal with such mishaps. In most parts of the United States, like Sarasota (FL) and Fruitville (FL), you would come across a number of such lawyers. However, it is important to know that not all are equally experienced to deal with every aspect of such legal matters pertaining to personal injury.

Most of the American citizens, especially those residing in some of the major US cities, like Sarasota (FL) and Englewood (FL), who have interacted with a personal injury attorney recently, would tell you that it is always a good idea to spend some time to find the best lawyer. However, since after such mishaps nobody would have the time to search for a good lawyer, it is better to keep the contact details of a few of them beforehand. Here are some qualities of a good personal injury attorney, which in turn would help you recognize him amongst others:

1.Open for discussion anytime of the day: A good lawyer, who deals in such legal matters, would be ready to help you and also discuss the situation with you anytime of the day. These types of accidents do not announce beforehand of their happening. So it is very important for a good lawyer to be always prepared to help his clients.

2.Willing to keep you updated: One of the great qualities of a good personal injury attorney is that he would never shy away from keeping his clients updated about the happenings of the case in a court of law. If the lawyer refuses to do this basic service, then all his clients would remain in the dark about what is happening to their cases. This in turn would hamper the popularity of the legal adviser and all his future clients would think twice before approaching him for help.

Whatever be the situation, it is always considered to be a good idea to take your time and look for a good and experienced personal injury attorney. Sarasota (FL) and Laurel (FL) are some of those places in the US where you would find a number of people who have kept the contact details of such legal advisers handy. This is good since you never know when you may need one to help you during times of distress.

How Can Reputable Immigration Lawyers in Philadelphia Help You

Many cities in the United States have a history with immigrants: New York and San Francisco are particularly the most famous in this regard. Manayunk, a neighborhood in Philadelphia, is well-known for the 19th century influx of Italian, Irish, Polish, and German immigrants after the city became a major industrial center. Immigration continues to be a hot issue in the country to this day, which is why many immigration lawyers in Philadelphia still have their hands full.

One of the most important benefits of working with an immigration attorney is the knowledge he or she has of the country’s immigration laws. These laws can be very complex, which is why some people just bypass them and enter the county as illegal immigrants. Below are some of the services that an immigration lawyer typically offers: :

Citizenship Application

One of the most common reasons for working with an immigration attorney in Philadelphia is to gain full-citizenship in the US (also known as naturalization), which can take a long time without the proper legal assistance. He or she ensures that the client submits the proper documents on time to the relevant authorities and that the process itself adheres to relevant federal laws like the Patriot Act of 2001. Hiring an immigration attorney is also a must if a business owner wants to move his or her company to the US.

Asylum Application

Refugees and expatriates need to work with immigration lawyers before they can be granted asylum in the country. However, this process may take a long time because immigration authorities also need to consider the international implications of providing refuge to, say, dissidents and activists from countries with strong ties to the US. Applications can be filed before or after the person reaches American soil.

Temporary Residency

This is specific to foreign workers and students who wish to reside in the country for a short time. However, this can also apply to Americans who wish to work or study in another country, especially if that country’s immigration laws are very different from the US. The Enhanced Border Security and Visa Reform Act of 2002 strictly requires schools and companies to report foreigners who are under their care.

For more about immigration lawyers, visit: wisegeek.com/what-is-an-immigration-lawyer.htm and attorneys.com/immigration/what-does-an-immigration-lawyer-do. For a brief look at the US immigration and visa policies, visit: travel.state.gov/visa/questions/policy/policy_4433.html.

Immigration Through Investment – Do You qualify

EB5 or investor visa is a popular concept in the US. This concept has been formed to get the foreign nationals to invest in the US economy. To get the foreign capital, the US immigration authority has formed the concept. If you want to get the green card, you can invest certain amount of money to the economy.

You must have understood that investor’s green card is not for everyone. You need to have money to be able to file for this. In addition, you need to know that investor’s visa is the one of the most complicated processes of the US immigration system. You will require proper legal guidance to file the petition for the green card. It is also important to remember that according to the law, you will have to invest the money to the US economy before you get to file the petition. For this reason only, you need to be careful about the application.

The investors and their family will be able to file a petition to obtain the green card, if they can invest one million dollar. This money will be used to set up a company. The company must provide full time jobs to the nationals of the US. This is the first criteria of the filing the petition.

Depending on the area, you can invest half a million dollar as well. This will also do, if you are setting up a company in a low employment areas. However, it is essential that you allow an established lawyer specialized in Miami EB-5 to deal with this.

The Application Process

The process of making application is complicated. This proceeds in two different ways. If you are living in the US, the process will be to change the residency term. In case, you are living outside the country, you will have to submit the application through the US consular.

Once you have gotten the green card, you will be able to get benefits like the citizens of the US. You will be able to ask for protection of law enforcers. You will be able to take your family to the US. In addition, if you want to pursue further study, you will be able to enroll in any course you want. In addition, you will be able to travel out of the country without any fear of being deputed from the country. There are both pros and cons of this process. You need to be aware of both if you want to apply for EB5 visa.